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In her words, “Macon County, Alabama ran a well-documented campaign against African-American midwives,” and tried to forbid midwives who could not or would not work with the state from practicing altogether.In her book, Granny Midwives and Black Women Writers: Double-Dutched Readings, scholar Valerie Lee notes that a federal survey of lay midwives in the 1920s found 42,627 predominantly black midwives were practicing in the United States and serving predominantly black communities.These percentages declined somewhat over the next twenty years, though more than 60 percent of black women giving birth in the South in 1937 were still attended by granny midwives, while only 10 percent of white babies births were attended by individuals other than physicians.In Listen to me Good, the autobiography of Alabama granny midwife Margaret Charles Smith, as recorded by Linda Janet Holmes, Smith relates her life story as a granny midwife in Alabama in the late twentieth century. Smith was licensed to practice midwifery by the state in the late 1940s, after Alabama began to regulate lay midwives.A Certified Midwife (CM) is a midwife certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board (AMCB).
CNMs focus especially on care of women and their families during pregnancy, delivery and the postpartum period. CNMs provide physical and emotional support during normal birth that can reduce the rate of complications and interventions.Town records indicate some well-known midwives including Bridget Fuller (d. Others such as Ruth Barnaby (1664-1765) and Elizabeth Phillips (1685-1761) practiced for over forty years.1664) who practiced in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Mrs. While Elizabeth Phillips was trained in London before continuing her practice in Boston, other midwives such as Ann Eliot may have acquired medical skills through their husbands. Later in 1658, the Dutch councillors of New Amsterdam appointed midwife Hilletje Wilbruch to oversee a new hospital.They also provide well-woman care, including annual exams, birth control, infection checks, and pre-pregnancy counseling.The CNM education program is a post-baccalaureate program that requires a bachelor's degree and may sometimes also require a registered nurse (RN) license.